Sunday, 24 November 2019

Why It's Easier to Succeed with Avocado Than You Might Think

Avocado (Persea americana) has been referred to as the most nutritious of all fruits. It has gained worldwide recognition and significant volume in international trade. This unique fruit has been appreciated and utilized for at least 9000 years in and near its center of origin in Meso-America.
The avocado tree, which is related to the laurel, grows in semitropical climates. Giant prehistoric ground sloths feasted on ripe avocados, rapidly packing masses of oily flesh into their mouths, and later defecating seeds with hardly a sense of their passing.
The famous Amazon plant specialist, Richard Spruce, wrote that he was acquainted with wild jaguars deep in the rain forest, that would sometimes gather around an avocado tree, "gnawing the fallen fruit and snarling over them as so many cats might do."
The Meso-American origin of avocado includes habitats from sea level to high altitudes exceeding 3000 m above sea level. It is covering a range of climates and soil types which gave rise to great genetic diversity and adaptability. Although avocado evolved within tropical latitudes, the moderating effect of altitude has strongly impacted on the gene pool.
The tropical highlands or borderline cool subtropical climates are equally well adapted to warm subtropical areas and dominates production in these regions. sometimes hybridized with Guatemalan ecotypes, is adapted to humid tropical lowland climates.
The fruit flesh, which is lower in oil but higher in sugar than Mexican and Guatemalan ecotypes, has a distinctly different flavor and dominates lowland tropical and semi-tropical growing areas.
The crop is mostly grown as seedling trees, which are generally managed from a lower technology base than the subtropical cultivars. However, superior cultivars are grown as grafted trees and continues to provide technology for production of West Indian and West Indian hybrid cultivars.
Avocado technology continues to advance at a rapid rate, resulting in a significant increase in the volume of this crop. The industry is currently struggling with the consequences of orchard intensification dictated by economic realities, with the technology required to meet this challenge. The first avocado introduction to California occurred before 1856, when a tree from Nicaragua, probably brought by a gold-rush participant, was observed growing near San Gabriel.
Water for Avocado
Avocado is a challenge to irrigate properly. Also, proper irrigation arrangement, with good quality water supplied to the trees through an efficient irrigation system, is a challenging requirement for all avocado groves. The further complication is the accumulation of salts in the soil through poor leaching.

The use of saline well water, saline surface water, or reclaimed water (if it is too salty) also reduces yields significantly and may not be sufficiently corrected with leaching. Despite these challenges, avocados can be successfully grown in if the grower and the irrigation are diligent. Missing a series of irrigation for one to two weeks may initiate fruit drop in trees and ruin the production for that year.
You know water plays a vital role in the photosynthesis reaction that creates the carbohydrates for growth and fruit production. Water is also important to produce Amino acids and proteins, vitamins, hormones, and enzymes. Water passing through the stomata in the leaf provides a cooling effect. An overheated leaf will usually shut down photosynthesis and may burn.

Checking Soil Moisture for Avocado Tree

There are several ways to check the soil moisture content. Probably the oldest method is to manually check the water content in the soil using a trowel, shovel, or soil tube. A soil sample is removed by digging 8 to 16 inches deep in the wetted area of the root zone, and a ball of the soil is formed in the hand. The texture of soil that has about 50% available water remaining will feel as follows:
·         Coarse – appears almost dry, will form a ball that does not hold shape. As mentioned, in coarse soils, it is best not to let the soil get this dry. A ball of soil will just begin to fall apart when the soil moisture depletion approaches 30%.
·         Loam – forms a ball, somewhat moldable, will form a weak ribbon when squeezed between fingers, dark color.
·         Clay – So, forms a good ball and makes a ribbon an inch or so long, the dark color, slightly sticky.

Health Benefits of Avocado
· Lowers Blood Cholesterol. So, eating half an avocado every other day would probably support your own cholesterol drop some. Patients at the V.A. Hospital in Coral Gables, Florida ranging in age from 27 to 72 were given 1/2 to 1-1/4 avocados per day. Twice a week blood samples were taken. 50% of them showed a definite decrease in serum cholesterol from 8.7-42.8%.

·  Avocado-Chamomile for Psoriasis. A rather extraordinary twofold approach towards relieving the itchy misery of psoriasis is by eating half of an avocado daily and applying an extra-rich cream of chamomile flowers extract to the skin. The oils in the avocado will work internally towards the surface of the skin, soothing deep muscle inflammation. The avocado oils help the skin to literally repair itself from the damage done by psoriasis.

· An Ancient Mayan Beauty Secret. Semi-domestication of the avocado dates to pre-Columbian times, as the fruit was valued by both the Mayan and Aztec civilizations as evidenced by it appearing in their iconography. It is believed that these cultures actively selected for larger fruit sizes and improved eating quality.

While working at an archaeological site several years ago near the Honduran-Guatemalan border, Chorti women (descendants of the ancient Maya) rubbed their hair and bodies with oil to keep them soft and resilient. They were using avocado oil to keep their skin from getting burned by the hot, glaring sun and the rough elements of wind and rain. They even rubbed some on their lips to keep them nice and moist.

Some of the Chorti women seemed to be in their late 20's or early 30's. Most of them were in their mid-to-late fifties! Now a pretty good judge of age because of my training in anthropology, but their constant use of avocado oil sure fooled others about how old they were. You too can experience near ageless beauty again simply by using avocado oil in place of other lotions and creams.

·   Food Value, Vitamins, and Fatty Acids: One hundred grams of the avocado pulp can supply 20 g of oil, 6 g of carbohydrates and 2 g of protein. The pulp is a valuable source of carotene, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyroxidine, riboflavin, and thiamine. Avocado pulp is also a source of lesser quantities of vitamin K, folic acid, ascorbic acid, biotin, and tocopherol.
The Fatty acid composition of the lipids in avocado fruit vary with cultivar and other factors, but the the major fatty acid is always oleic, followed by palmitic and linoleic acids. Palmitoleic acid may or may not be present. The fatty acids in olive fruit are: oleic, 83%; linoleic, 7%; palmitic, 6%; and stearic, 4%.

The triglyceride content found in the avocado pulp and concurrent fall in water content. Linolenic acid being present in fruit weight and fatty acids are present in avocado pulp: linolenic, myristic, stearic, and arachidic.

·  Protein and Ash! Avocado pulp is richer in protein than that of other fruits but compared with meat, milk and some pulses cannot be considered a good source of protein. It contains higher amounts of free amino acids than other fruits.

The major ones being asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, and glutamic acid. Amino acids found in minor quantities in the flesh of ‘Fuerte’ were serine, threonine, alanine, valine, and cystine. All essential acids are present in the pulp.

Avocados were found to contain a relatively high amount of ash (1.0–1.4%), which was relatively rich in iron that was physiologically available to experimental rats, and thus was considered of potential value in preventing or curing anemia.

· Avocado is high nutritional food: it is very useful for unsaturated oils in promoting the health of the heart and circulatory system. Avocado oils used in cosmetics, where they are applied by themselves or in combination with other ingredients to soften the skin and improve its texture and appearance.

·    Avocado pulp is mashed up and applied as a facial and allergy treatment.
Avocado is also used in cooking, presumably because of off-flavors (i.e. bitterness) when the pulp is subjected to high temperatures. However, the use of avocado fruit in salads, sandwiches, ‘dips’ and cold soups like vichyssoise will serve to assure its continuing popularity.

Avocado Tree and Growth
The seedling trees' ecotypes, especially in their native rain-forest environments, can reach heights exceeding 15 to 30 m. However, are dwarfed to a varying extent, depending on root stock vigor and growing conditions. Cultivated avocado trees are mostly evergreen, despite the surprisingly short leaf longevity of 10–12 months. Some cultivars are more prone to defoliation just before flowering, especially in environments that impose stress, e.g. winter cold and drought, soil salinity, and root infection by Phytophthora cinnamomic.
Severe photoinhibition of leaves in winter may also hasten leaf senescence, aggravated by the loss of feeder roots accompanying heavy flowering. Avocado trees are capable of fast growth in height and spread, with 1 m per year not unusual in young trees in the moist subtropics. The wood is rather spongy due to the relatively thin-walled fibers caused by a rapid increase in branch thickness.
Branches bend without difficulty under the weight of fruit, and for a given thickness are not closely as strong as those of citrus. Avocado trees are more likely to be semi-deciduous, store more carbohydrates in autumn and winter but use more in spring, and be more reliant on stored carbohydrate reserves in relation to photosynthate than in the warm, moist subtropics.
Vegetative Growth Flushes
The avocado trees characteristically have a rounded canopy with dense foliage. Growth form though varies from upright to rounding to spreading. The most polyaxial evergreens, shoot growth in mature trees is harmonized into flushes of varying vigor, duration, and extent.
In the moist, summer-rainfall subtropics, bearing trees are characterized by a spring growth flush which starts during flowering and peaks in early summer. The proportion of terminal and sub-terminal shoots in active growth then reduces to a low level, to be followed by a second (summer and early autumn) growth flush. In climates such as those of southern California, the spring flush may end earlier, allowing an early summer flush and an autumn flush.
The avocado tree abscisses, perhaps through the activity of the periderm, most of its lateral buds at about 1 year of age or sooner, except at the intercalation. The pruning cut back to the earlier intercalation in autumn will release the growth of the ring of buds and upsurge shoot complexity. The loss of axillary buds affects graft wood selection and is a reason for the widespread use of grafting rather than budding in avocado propagation.
The persisting intercalary buds at the ‘bud ring’ between shoot, flushes grow sufficiently each year to keep their meristems at the bark surface. They may subsequently sprout after severe pruning or branch bending. Avocado leaves expand to full size in about 30 days.

A Quick Laxative Recipe
One famous recipe uses ripe avocados regularly as a fast-acting laxative. So, peel two of them and mash the meat up good in a dish, adding a little kelp, 3 tbsp. apple cider vinegar, and 1 tsp. lemon juice. After mixing them together, spread the mixture on some sprouted cracked wheat or pumpernickel bread and eat it.
Not only does it make incredibly delicious sandwiches, but usually within just a couple of hours or less, it will promote a vigorous bowel movement. Hence, too seldom ever has constipation as a result of even above the ’60's.
Another Avocado Recipe
The Ultimate Guacamole Dip Needed: 4 large peeled, pitted avocados; 7 tsp. peeled, grated onion; 1/8 tsp. cayenne (optional); 1/2 tsp kelp; two 8 oz. cans of peeled tomatoes; 4 tbsp. plain yogurt; 1/2 tsp. lemon juice; 1/2 tsp.
Worcestershire sauce. Mash all the ingredients together in a large mixing bowl and whip until well-blended and smooth. Chill before serving. Use natural corn chips from your local health food store for dipping.
Also Read:
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Reference: Gary S. Bender, Ph.D., Farm Advisor

Monday, 16 September 2019

Banana – Helpful in Inflammation of all Kinds

The banana is very useful in inflammation of all kinds. For this reason it is very helpful in cases of typhoid fever, gastritis, peritonitis, etc. It may constitute the only food acceptable for a time. Not only does it in fact subdue the inflammation of the intestines, but, in the opinion of at least one authority, as it consists of 95%. Nutriment, it does not possess adequate waste matter to irritate the inflamed spots.

But immense care should be taken in its administration. The banana should be carefully sound and ripe, and the whole stringy portion carefully removed. It should then be mashed and beaten to a cream. In harsh cases it is better to give this neat. But if not liked by the patient a little lemon juice, well mixed in, may render it more suitable. It may also be taken with fresh cream.

There is a person who had a very wide experience in illness. That she was once suddenly sent for at night to a girl suffering from peritonitis. Not knowing what she might, or might not; find in the way of remedies when she arrived at her destination. It took with her some strong barley water, bananas, and an enema syringe. She found the girl lying across the bed screaming, obviously in agony. First of all my friend administered a warm water enema.

A pint of plain warm water was injected first, and after this had come away as much warm water as could be got in was injected and then allowed to come away. The object of this was to methodically wash out the bowels. Then the barley water was warmed, the bananas mashed, and beaten to cream, with mixed in with the barley water.

A relaxing nutrient lotion was thus prepared, and as much as the patient could bear happily was injected in the bowel and retained as long as possible. The effect was truly magical. The pain subsided, and the patient eventually recovered.

In the absence of completely ripe bananas, baked bananas may be used. But, even though better than no fruit at all, cooked fruit is never as precious as the fresh fruit, if only the latter be absolutely ripe. Bananas should be baked in their skins, and the stringy pieces carefully removed before eating. From twenty minutes to half an hour's slow cooking is required.

Bananas are exceptional food for anemic persons on account of the iron they contain. A very edible way of taking them is with fresh orange juice. A moderately old-fashioned remedy, for sprained or bruised places that show a propensity to become inflamed is to apply a plaster of banana skin.
Banana – Helpful in Inflammation of all Kinds
Banana – Helpful in Inflammation of all Kinds
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Wednesday, 14 August 2019

Black Walnut – Juglans Nigra

Blacknut, “Juglans nigra”, is a species of deciduous tree in the walnut family, Juglandaceae, native to North America. This is stately forest tree ranges from Massachusetts to Minnesota and Nebraska, south to Florida and Texas. It does best in a rich loamy soil and is often seen along fences, roadsides, and the borders of woods. Squirrels and other animals buried the nuts along fences where young trees appear. Of course, it was initially a forest tree, common on hillsides and rich bottom lands; but now we rarely see it in the dense woods. The black walnut was introduced into Europe in 1629 and is also cultivated in Hawaii.

The pioneer farmers, in clearing the land, seldom allowed the Black Walnut to grow in the fields and about their homes, and some were probably planted. In many places this tree is becoming scarce on account of being cut for its valuable wood. Under favorable conditions; the walnut may reach an extreme height of nearly a 100 feet and a trunk diameter of 6 feet. In the open, it develops large branches and is wide-spreading.

The bark is dark brown with prominent ridges and deep furrows. The large compound leaves are very similar to those of the butternut. The staminate catkins, which appear with the leaves, also resemble those of the butternut. The fruit is nearly round, yellowish green, roughly dotted, an inch and a half to nearly three inches in diameter. Nutritionally, the black walnut kernel is high in unsaturated fat and protein. 

The husk does not split open like that of the hickory nut. The nut within is dark, rough, very hard or bony, nearly round, only slightly compressed, and an inch and a quarter to nearly two inches in diameter. The sweet, edible, four-celled kernel has a pleasant but strong taste and is quite oily. The Black Walnut is one of the most important of our native nut-bearing trees. The walnut shells are frequently used as an abrasive in sand blasting or other circumstances where a medium hardness grit is necessary.

Large quantities of the nuts are gathered for home use, and many are sold in the markets. The American Indians made great use of them as an article of food. The husk has an aromatic odor and is sometimes used for dyeing and tanning. The mere name of Black Walnut brings pleasant recollections to the minds of many grown folks who spent their youth in the country. Also, the tree wood has in the past been used for gun stocks, furniture, flooring, paddles, coffins, and many other wood products.

The writer recalls that three quite large trees stood along the fence that enclosed the grounds of the school he attended when a lad. The trees gave us exercise in climbing. When we returned to school in autumn, the nuts on the branches were excellent targets for our marksmanship. They were gathered and carried home by the boys who did not naturally fall heir to such articles of diet. The Black walnut drupes contain juglone, plumbagin, and tannin.

In the adjoining field, a few rods from the fence stood a great spreading walnut tree, presumably the parent of all the others in the immediate neighborhood. The ground was often nearly covered by the un-hulled nuts. The fanner owning the land always left the nuts for the boys. Here during the noon hour of pleasant autumn days, we often congregated to eat walnuts or shuck them to take home. Black walnut is also used in allelopathic releases chemicals from roots and other tissues. These are harmful for some other organisms and give the tree a competitive advantage.  Also this is time and again undesirable as it can harm garden plants and grasses.

Our fingers were stained a dark brown the skin almost tanned. With all the washing with soap and water, we could not remove the color and our fingers carried the telltale stains for a week or two. But what a good time we had! Sometimes in the spring we tried the nuts but then after being moist with rain and snow all winter, they were getting ready to grow and had a peculiar sweet taste. The Black walnut is at present under immense pressure from the thousand of cankers disease that is causing decline of walnuts in a number of areas.

I am informed by a friend that even the nuts of the Bitter-Fruited Hickory lose their bitterness, or most of it, after being buried or left out for a winter. I have not verified this by experiment. The Texas Walnut, “Juglans rupestris”, which grows along canons and streams of the Southwest, has small thick-shelled nuts much esteemed by the Mexicans and Indians. The California Walnut, Juglans californica, is a beautiful tree growing along the west coast.

The nuts are small, thin-shelled, and sweet. The Persian or English walnut, “Juglans regia”, is grafted on its roots so that it can be grown farther north. Another species, “Juglans kindsii”, is found about old Indian camp sites in central California. Moreover the black walnut is an imperative tree commercially, as the wood is a deep brown color and easily worked and cultivated for their distinctive and desirable taste. The U.S. national champion black walnut is on a residential property in Oregon. It is 8 ft 7 inches diameter at breast height and 112 ft tall, with a crown spread of 144 feet. Read More - How to Grow Sweat Peas?

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Tuesday, 13 August 2019

How to Grow Sweet Peas?

Common names: pea, sweet pea, garden pea, sugar pea, English pea
Botanical name: Pisum sativum
Origin: Europe, Near East
Varieties Shelling types: Little Marvel (62 days); Frosty (64 days); Wando (75 days); Dwarf Grey Sugar (65 days). Edible-pod types: Giant Melting (65 days); Melting Sugar (69 days); Oregon Sugar Pod (75 days); Sugar Snap (65 days).

Peas are hardy, weak-stemmed, climbing annuals that have leaf like stipules, leaves with one to three pairs of leaflets, and tendrils that they use for climbing. The flowers are white, streaked, or colored. The fruit is a pod containing four to 10 seeds, either smooth or wrinkled depending on the variety. Custom has it that you can make a wish if you find a pea pod with nine or more peas in it. Edible-pod peas are a fairly recent development. Grow them the same way as sweet peas, but harvest the immature pod before the peas have developed to full size.

Peas have traditionally been a difficult crop for the home gardener to grow, with yields so low that it was hardly worth planting them. The introduction of the new easy-to-grow varieties of edible-pod peas has made growing peas a manageable undertaking for the home gardener, and no garden should be without them. All you need to grow peas is cool weather and a six-foot support trellis.

Where and when to grow
Peas are a cool-season crop that must mature before the weather gets hot. Ideal growing weather for peas is moist and between 60° and 65°F, Plant them as soon as the soil can be worked in spring about six weeks before the average date of last frost.

How to plant
Peas tolerate partial shade and need good drainage in soil that is high in organic material. They produce earlier in sandy soil, but yield a heavier, later crop if grown in clay soil. Although soaking seeds can speed germination, a lot of seed can be ruined by over soaking, and peas are harder to plant when they're wet, because the seeds tend to break. Before planting, work a complete well-balanced fertilizer into the soil at the rate of one pound per 100 square feet or 10 pounds per 1,000 square feet. Plant the peas two inches deep, one to two inches apart, in rows 18 to 24 inches apart.

Fertilizing and watering
Fertilize before planting and again at midseason, at the same rate as the rest of the garden. Detailed information on fertilizing is given in "Spadework: The Essential Soil" in P a r t i. Peas need ample moisture; don't let the soil dry out. When the vines are flowering, avoid getting water on the plants; it may damage the flowers and reduce the crop.

Special handling
Provide trellises to support the pea vines. Cultivate very gently to avoid harming the fragile roots.

Aphids, rabbits, birds, and people are attracted to pea vines. Control aphids by pinching out infested foliage or by hosing them off the vines. Fence out the rabbits, and discourage birds with a scarecrow. Stern words may do the trick with human trespassers. Despite this competition, peas are an excellent crop for any garden.
Peas are susceptible to rot, wilt, blight, mosaic, and mildew. New, highly disease-resistant varieties are available; use them to cut down on disease problems in your garden. You will also lessen the incidence of disease if you avoid handling the vines when they're wet, and if you maintain the general health and cleanliness of the garden. If a plant does become diseased, remove and destroy it before it can spread disease to healthy plants.
When and how to harvest

Time from planting to harvest is from 55 to 80 days. A 10-foot row may give you about three pounds of pods. Pick shelling peas when the pods are full and green, before the peas start to harden. Over mature peas are nowhere near as tasty as young ones; as peas increase in size, the sugar content goes down as the starch content goes up. Sugar  will also begin converting to starch as soon as peas are picked. To slow this process, chill the peas in their pods as they are picked and shell them immediately before cooking. Harvest edible-pod peas before the peas mature. Pods
Should be plump, but the individual peas should not be completely showing through the pod.

Storing and preserving

Storing fresh shelling peas is seldom an issue for home gardeners; there are seldom any left to store but they can be stored in the refrigerator, unshelled, up to one week. You can sprout, freeze, can, or dry peas. Dried peas can be stored in a cool, dry place for 10 to 12 months. Edible-pod peas are also so good raw that you may not even get them as far as the kitchen. If you do have any to spare, you can store them in a plastic bag in the refrigerator for seven to 10 days. Edible-pod peas also freeze well and, unlike shelling peas. lose little of their flavor when frozen. Detailed information on storing and preserving is given in Part 3.

Serving suggestions
Freshly shelled peas are a luxury seldom enjoyed by most people. Cook them quickly in a little water and serve them with butter and chopped mint. Or add a sprig of mint during cooking. Fresh peas and boiled new potatoes are the perfect accompaniment for a lamb roast. Toss cold, cooked peas into a salad, or add them to potato salad — throw in diced cooked carrots as well, and you've got a Russian salad. Simmer peas in butter with a handful of lettuce tossed in at the end of the cooking time or try lining the pot with lettuce leaves and cooking the peas briefly over low heat. Add a few sautéed mushrooms or onions for a sophisticated vegetable dish. Add edible pod peas to a stir-fry dish — the rapid cooking preserves their crisp texture and delicate flavor. Eat them raw, or use them alone, lightly steamed, as a side dish.

Pea Black Eyed
Common names: pea, black-eyed pea, cowpea, chowder pea, southern pea, black-eyed bean, China bean
Botanical name: Gigna sinensis
Origin: Asia
Varieties; California Black Eye (75 days); Pink Eye Purple Hull (78 days); Mississippi Silver (80 days).
Black-eyed peas are tender annuals that can be either bushy or climbing plants, depending on the variety. The seeds of the dwarf varieties are usually white with a dark spot (black eye) where they're attached to the pod; sometimes the spots are brown or purple. Black-eyed peas originated in Asia. Slave traders brought them to Jamaica, where they became a staple of the West Indies' diet.

Where and when to grow
Unlike sweet peas, black-eyed peas tolerate high temperatures but are very sensitive to cold — the slightest frost will harm them. They grow very well in the South, but they don't grow well from transplants, and some Northern areas may not have a long enough growing season to accommodate them from seeds. If your area has a long enough warm season, plant black-eyed peas from seed four weeks after the average date of last frost.

How to plant

Black-eyed peas will tolerate partial shade and will grow in very poor soil. In fact, like other legumes, they're often grown to improve the soil. Well-drained, well-worked soil that's high in organic matter increases their productivity. When you're preparing the soil for planting, you have to work in a complete, well-balanced fertilizer at the rate of one pound per 100 square feet or 10 pounds per 1,000 square feet. Sow seeds half an inch deep and about two inches apart in rows two to three feet apart; when the seedlings are large enough to handle, thin them to three or four inches apart.

Fertilizing and watering
Fertilize before planting and again at midseason, at the same rate as the rest of the garden. Detailed information on fertilizing is given in "Spadework: The Essential Soil" in P a r t i. Don't let the soil dry out, but try to keep water off the flowers; it may cause them to fall off, and this will reduce the yield.

Beetles, aphids, spider mites, and leafhoppers attack black-eyed peas. Control aphids and beetles physically by hand-picking or hosing them off the plants, pinch out aphid-infested vegetation, or using a chemical spray of Diazinon or Malathion. Hose leafhoppers off the plants or spray with carbaryl. Spider mites are difficult to control even with
The proper chemicals; remove the affected plants before the spider mites spread, or spray the undersides of the foliage with Diazinon.

Black-eyed peas are susceptible to anthracnose, rust, mildews,mosaic, and wilt. Planting disease-resistant varieties when possible and maintaining the general cleanliness and health of your garden will help cut down the incidence of disease. To avoid spreading disease, don't work with the plants when they're wet. If a plant does become infected, remove it before it can spread disease to healthy plants.

When and how to harvest
Time from planting to harvest is from 70 to 110 days. You can eat either the green pods or the dried peas. Pick pods at whatever stage of maturity you desire — either young and tender or fully matured to use dried.

Storing and preserving

Unshelled black-eyed peas can be kept up to one week in the refrigerator. Young black-eyed peas can be frozen, pod and all; the mature seeds can be dried, canned, or frozen. Dried shelled black-eyed peas can be stored in a cool, dry place for 10 to 12 months.

Serving suggestions
Eat young black-eyed peas in the pod like snap beans; dry the shelled peas for use in casseroles and soups. Combine cooked black-eyed peas and rice, season with red pepper sauce, and bake until hot; or simmer the peas with pork or bacon for a classic Southern dish.

60 Seconds Habit ! That Reversed Type 2 Diabetes and Melted 56 lbs of Fat

Thursday, 27 June 2019

Betony Wood (Betonica OJicinalis)

The common wood betony had many leaves rising from the root. Which are somewhat broad and round at the end? It is roundly dented about the edges, standing upon long foot stalks, from among which rise up small, square, slender, but upright hairy stalks. There is with some leaves thereon, to a piece at the joints, smaller than the lower. Whereof are set more than a few spiked heads of flowers like lavender. Hence it is thicker and shorter for the most part, and of a reddish and purple color, spotted with white spots both in the upper and lower part.
Also, the seeds being contained in the husks that hold the flowers are blackish, somewhat long and uneven. The roots are a lot of white thread strings; the stalk perished, but the roots with some leaves thereon, abide all the winter. The whole plant is somewhat small.
It growth is normally in woods and delighted, in shady places.  It flowers comes in July, after when the seed is swiftly ripped, yet in its prime in May. The herb is appropriated to the planet Jupiter, and the sign Aries. Antonius Mum, physician to the Emperor Agustus Ctesar, wrote a peculiar book of the Virtues of this herb.
Use of Betony Wood
It is among other virtue said of it, that it preserved the liver and body of man from the danger of epidemical diseases. It also helps in from witchcraft also and supports those that loathe or cannot digest their meal. Moreover, those who have weak stomachs or sour belching and continual rising in their stomach using it closely either green or dry. Either the herb or root, or the flowers in broth, drink, or meat, or made into conserve syrup, water, electuary, or powder. As everyone may beat frame themselves unto, or as the time or season required; taken any of the aforesaid ways.
It supports in the jaundice, falling sickness, the palsy, convulsions, shrinking of the sinews, the gout, and those that are inclined to dropsy, those that have continual pains in their heads, although it turn to frenzy. The powder mixed with pure honey is no less available for all sorts of coughs or colds, wheezing, or shortness of breath, distillations of thin rheum’s upon the lungs, which caused consumptions.
The decoction made with mead and a little pennyroyal. It is good for those that are troubled with putrid agues, whether quotidian, tertian, or quartan and to draw down and evacuate the blood and humors. That by falling into the eyes, do hinder the sight. The decoction thereof made in wine, and taken, killed the worms in the belly, opened obstructions both of the spleen and liver. It cured stitches and pains in the back or sides.
The torments and griping pains of the bowels and the wind cholic, and mixed with honey purged the belly. It helped to bring down women's courses, and is of special use for those that are troubled with the falling down of the mother. The pains thereof, and caused an easy and speedy delivery of women in child-birth. It helped also to break and expels the stone, either in the bladder or kidneys. The decoction with wine gargled in the mouth eased the toothache.
It is suggested against the stinging or biting of venomous serpents, or mad dogs, being used inwardly and applied outwardly to the place. A dram of the powder of betony, taken with a little honey in some vinegar, doth magnificently refresh those that are over wearied by travel. It stayed bleeding at the mouth and nose, and helps those that evacuate blood, and those that are bursten or have a rupture, and is good for such as are bruised by any fall or otherwise.
Moreover, the green herb bruised, or the juice affect to any inward hurt, or outward green wound in the head or body. It will speedily heal and close it up: as also any veins or sinews that are cut; and will draw forth a broken bone or splinter, thorn or other things got into. It is no less profitable for old and filthy ulcers; yes, though they are fistulous and hollow. But some do advice to put a little salt to this purpose, being applied with a little hog's lard. Further, it helped a plague or sore and other bile’s and pushes.
The fume of the decoction while it is warm received by a funnel into the ears, eased the pains of them, destroys the worms, and cured the running sores in them: the juice dropped into them doth the same. The root of betony is displeasing both to the stomach and taste.  Whereas, the leaves and flowers, are having their sweet and spicy taste, are comfortable both to meat and medicine.
These are some of the many virtues Antonius Musa, an expert physician, for it was not the practice of Octavius Caesar to keep fools about him appropriates to betony. It is a very precious herb that is certain, and most fitting to be kept in a man's house. So, hence it is both in syrup, conserve, oil, ointment, and plaster. The flowers are usually conserved. 

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